This photo of an early "Punk
Rack" is undated but you can tell it predates
electricity by the beat up Pan Lamps attached high on
the sides of the flimsy joint. They were called Pan
Lamps because they resembled skillets and were the only
source of luminescence on a midway until electric lights
were invented. They worked on the same principal as a
miner's carbide lamp. Water was stored in the tank or
'pan' at the top and flowed down through a long tube
into the head. The drip was adjusted by a valve on the
tube. It reacted with the calcium carbide to produce
acetylene gas which in turn fueled a white hot flame.
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